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Asian Development Bank (ADB). 2008. Botswana Progress Report of the Country Strategy Paper 2004-2008. Regional Department ORSA. May 2008.

Alemaw, B.F. and N. Sebusang. 2008. Hydro-climatic profile and climate change impacts on the hydrology of the Orange-Senqu Basin. Unpublished Research Report No. RR/CCL/03/08. for Continental Consultants (Pty) Ltd, Gaborone, Botswana. 44 pp. and appendices.

All Business. 2009. Water - Southern Africa: Managing an Unpredictable Resource. Interview with Dr. Amy Sullivan. Accessed at: Accessed on: April 15, 2010.

Allan, J.A. 1998. Virtual water: a strategic resource. Global solutions to regional deficits. Groundwater, 36(4): pp. 545-546.

Amaral, H. and R. Sommerhalder. 2004. The Limpopo River basin - Case study on Science and Politics of International Water Management.

Aquastat Botswana. 2010. FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: Zimbabwe. Accessed at: Accessed on: March 12, 2010.

Aquastat Mozambique. 2010. FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: Zimbabwe. Accessed at: Accessed on: March 12, 2010.

Aquastat South Africa. 2010. FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: Zimbabwe. Accessed at: Accessed on: March 12, 2010.

Aquastat Zimbabwe. 2010. FAO’s Information System on Water and Agriculture: Zimbabwe. Accessed at: Accessed on: March 12, 2010.

Arntzen, J.W. and T. Setlhogile. 2007. Mainstreaming wastewater through water accounting: The example of Botswana. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 32: pp. 1221-1230.

Artan, G., M. Restrepo and K. Asante. 2002. A Flood Early Warning System for Southern Africa. USGS, Raytheon, EROS Data Center, USA.

Ashton, P.J., Hardwick, D. and C. Breen. 2008. Changes in Water Availability and Demand withing South Africa's Shared River Basins as Determinants of Regional Social and Ecological Resilience. In: Exploring Sustainability Science: A Southern African Perspective. M. Burns and A. Weaver (Eds.) SUN PReSS. pp 279-310.

Ashton, P.J., D. Love, H. Mahachi, and P.H.G.M. Dirks. 2001a. An Overview of the Impact of Mining and Mineral Processing Operations on Water Resources and Water Quality in the Zambezi, Limpopo and Olifants Catchments in Southern Africa. Contract Report to the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (Southern Africa) Project, by CSIR Environmentek Pretoria, South Africa and Geology Department, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. Report No. ENV-P-C 2001-042. xvi + 336 pp.

Ashton, P.J., D. Love, H. Mahachi, and P.H.G.M. Dirks. 2001b. Impacts of Mining and Mineral Processing on Water Resources in the Zambezi, Limpopo, and Olifants Catchments. Powerpoint presentation by CSIR Environmentek Pretoria, South Africa and Geology Department, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. 32 slides.

Barros, R. 2009. Integrated Water Resources Management in Mozambique: The case of the Limpopo Basin. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Environmental Sciences. Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH), Zurich, Switzerland. 85 pp.

Biggs, R., E. Bohensky, P.V. Desanker, C. Fabricius, T. Lynam, A.A. Misselhorn, C. Musvoto, M. Mutale, B. Reyers, R.J. Scholes, S. Shikongo, and A.S. van Jaarsveld. 2004. Nature Supporting People: The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Integrated Report. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria. 68 pp.

Brooks, M.C. 2010. Debswana’s Current and Future Water Management Challenges in Botswana. Hydrogeological Manager, Debswana Technical Support Centre, Gaborone, Botswana.

Cobbing, J.E., P.J. Hobbs, R. Meyer and J. Davies. 2008. A Critical Overview of Transboundary Aquifers shared by South Africa. Hydrogeology Journal. DOI 10.1007/s10040-008-0285-2.

CMEN (Creamer Media's Engineering News). 2010. Mozambique approves new coal-fired power station. January 18, 2010 by Esmarie Swanepoel.

CSO (Central Statistics Office). 2001. Table 1.1: Population by sex & census districts (1991 and 2001). Gaborone, Botswana. Accessed at:
. Accessed on: April 19, 2010.

Daily Nation. 2010.Zimbabwe, China in $400 mn power plant agreement. Accessed at:$400%20m%20power%20plant%20agreement/-/1066/911368/-/7qgtqpz/-/index.html. Accessed on: May 3, 2010.

DME (Department of Minerals and Energy) et al. 2001.

DME. 2003. White Paper on Renewable Energy, Republic of South Africa. November 2003.

Dube, E. and P. van der Zaag. 2003. Analysing water use patterns for demand management: the case of the city of Masvingo, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 28 (2003) pp. 805-815.

DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry). 1999. Water Conservation and Demand Management Framework Draft. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa.

DWAF. 2003a. Limpopo Water Management Area, Overview of WaterResources Availability and Utilization. Report No. P WMA 01/000/00/0203.

DWAF. 2003b. Levuvhu and Letaba Water Management Area, Overview of WaterResources Availability and Utilization.Report No. P WMA 02/000/00/0203.

DWAF. 2003c. Crocodile (West) and Marico Water Management Area, Overview of WaterResources Availability and Utilization. Report No.P WMA 03/000/00/0203.

DWAF. 2003d. Olifants Water Management Area, Overview of Water Resources Availability and Utilization.Report No.P WMA 04/000/00/0203.

DWAF. 2004. National Water Resource Strategy. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South Africa. First Edition.

DWAF. 2005. Olifants River Water Resources Development Project Environmental Impact Assessment. Environmental Impact Report. Accessed at:
. Accessed on: May 10, 2010.

DWAF 2009a(could be one of following from OSR):

DWAF. 2009. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry Website. Available at:, accessed on: May 10, 2009.

DWAF. National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Project (NGwQMP). Available at:, accessed on: May 14, 2009.)

Eales, K., S. Fraser and L. Du Mhango. No date. Strain, Water Demand, and Supply Direction in the most Stressed Water Systems of Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. IDRC publication.

Earle, A. and A.R. Turton. 2003. The virtual water trade amongst countries of the SADC. In Virtual Water Trade: Proceedings of the International Expert Meeting on Virtual Water Trade, IHE Delft, pp. 183-200.

Environmentek, CSIR (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 2003. Protection and Strategic Uses of Groundwater Resources in Drought Prone Areas of the SADC Region. Groundwater Situation Analysis of the Limpopo River Basin, Summary Report. Prepared for SADC. CSIR Environmentek Report No. ENV-P-C 2003-047.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1997. Irrigation Potential in Africa: A basin approach. FAO Land and Water Development Division. Bulletin No.4. Rome.

FAO. 2003a. African Development Bank, European Commission. Forestry Outlook Study for Africa. Subregional Report Southern Africa.

FAO. 2003b. Selected indicators of Food and Agriculture Development in Asia-pacific Region 1992-2002. RAP Publication: 2003/10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations regional office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok.

FAO. 2004. Drought impact mitigation and prevention in the Limpopo River Basin: A Situation Analysis. Land and Water Discussion Paper Vol.4. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 160 pp.

FAO. 2009. FAOSTAT. Accessed March 12, 2010 at:

Forslund, A., et al. 2009. Securing Water for Ecosystems and Human Well-being: The Importance of Environmental Flows. Swedish Water House Report 24. SIWI.

Freeman, A.M. 1993.The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values: Theory and Methods. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.

Gumbo, B. 2004. The status of water demand management in selected cities of southern Africa. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (29), pp. 1225-1231.

Hambira, W.L. and C.P. Gandidzanwa. 2006. Water Pricing: A Key to Sustainable Water Supply and Demand Management in Southern Africa: A Comparative Study of Botswana and Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference Environmentally Sound Technology in Water Resources Management. September 11-13 Gaborone, Botswana.

Hoekstra, A.Y. 2003. Virtual water trade between nations: A global mechanism affecting regional water systems, Global Change News Letter, IGBP, Issue No.54, June 2003.

Hoekstra, A.Y. and Chapagain A.K. 2008.  Globalization of Water. Sharing the Planet's Water Resources.Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Hoekstra, A.Y. and P.Q. Hung. 2002. Virtual water trade: a quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international crop trade. Value of Water Research Report Series, No. 11, IHE Delft.

Ibraimo, L.R. 1999. Water Law, Water Rights and Water Supply (Africa). MOZAMBIQUE - study country report August 1999. Department for International Development (DFID) & Cranfield University at Silsoe. DFID KaR Project R7327. Reader: Dr. Peter Howsam. 19 pp.

IPS (Inter Press Service News Agency). 2010a. Farming God's Way. Accessed at: Accessed on: April 13, 2010.

IPS. 2010b. Future Generations will only inherit the wind. Accessed at: Accessed on: April 15, 2010.

Kgomotso, P.K. 2005. The challenge of implementing integrated water resource management (IWRM) in the lower Okavango river basin, Ngamiland district, Botswana. Faculty of Science, University of the Western Cape.

Kort, A.J.K. 2010. Virtual water trade in the SADC region: A grid-based approach. Master’s thesis for the Water Engineering & Management department, University of Twente, the Netherlands. Limpopo Basin Permanent Technical Committee (LBPTC) 2010. Joint Limpopo River Basin Study Scoping Phase. Final Report. BIGCON Consortium.

Lange, G. and R.M. Hassan. 2006. The economics of water management in Southern Africa: an environmental accounting approach. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Lange, G.M., E. Mungatana and R. Hassan. 2007. Water Accounting for the Orange River Basin: An Economic Perspective on Managing a Transboundary Resource. Ecological Economics. 61: 660-670.

Lange, G.M. No date. Environmental and Natural Resource Accounting: Experiences from Southern Africa. Presentation at the Earth Institute at Columbia University.

Limpopo Basin Permanent Technical Committee (LBPTC) 2010. Joint Limpopo River Basin Study Scoping Phase. Final Report. BIGCON Consortium.

Love, D., A.E. Taingbenu and L. Jonker. 2005. An Overview of the Mzingwane Catchment, Zimbabwe, a contribution to the WaterNet Challenge Program Project 17 “Integrated Water Resource Management for Improved Rural Livelihoods: Managing risk, mitigating drought and improving water productivity in the water scarce Limpopo Basin.” WaterNet Working Paper 1. WaterNet, Harare.

Makurira, H. and M. Mugumo. 2003. Chapter 14. Water Sector Reforms in Zimbabwe: The Importance of Policy and Institutional Coordination on Implementation. In: Preparing for the Next Generation of Watershed Management Programmes and Projects. Proceedings of the African Regional Workshop on Watershed Management. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN.

Maserumule, R., C. Colvin and S. Woodburne. 2008. How Does Climate Change Affect Groundwater in South Africa? CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria.

Matete, M. 2004. The ecological economics of inter-basin water transfers: The Case of the Lesotho Highlands Water Project. PhD thesis for: the Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension of Rural Development. Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

McNamara et al. 2006. Bahine National Park Watershed Assessment. African Wildlife Foundation, United States Forest Service International Programs. Draft 10/2006.

Metcalf-Wallach, J. 2008. Demand-Side Approaches to Water Scarcity: South Africa and the National Water Act. IDEAS Journal: International Development, Environment and Sustainability. The Fletcher School, MALD Candidate.

Morgan, K. 2009. Understanding how Data Quality impacts Decision Quality. Research Triangle Institute, Washington, D.C.

Motsi, K.E., Chuma, E., Mukamuri, B.B., 2004. Rainwater harvesting for sustainable agriculture in communal lands of Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 29, 1069–1073.

Moyce, W., P. Mangeya, R. Owen, and D. Love. 2006. Alluvial aquifers in the Mzingwane catchment: Their distribution, properties, current usage and potential expansion. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31 (2006) pp. 988-994.

Murwira, A. and A. Yachan. 2007. Limpopo Basin Strategic Plan for Reducing Vulnerability to Floods and Droughts. Draft for Discussion with Riparian Governments. UN-HABITAT/UNEP. July 2007. 23 pp.

Nare, L., D. Love and Z. Hoko. 2006. Involvement of stakeholders in the water quality monitoring and surveillance system: The case of the Mzingwane Catchment, Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (31). pp. 707-712.

Pallett, J. (ed.): 1997: Sharing water in southern Africa, Desert Research Foundation of Namibia, Windhoek.

Republic of Botswana. 2009. National Development Plan 10 (April 2009 - March 2016). Ministry of Finance and Development Planning December 2009. Gaborone, Botswana.

Republic of Botswana Website. 2009. Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources. Water Sector Restructuring. Accessed on: August 31, 2010 at:

Robinson, P. 2003. SADC Water Sector: RSAP Projects 9 & 10 Guidelines for Water Policy Review and Development of National Water Policies and Strategies in selected Member States. Mozambique Water Policy Review.

SADCC-AIDAB (Southern African Development Coordinating Conference - Australian International Development Assistance Bureau). 1992. Regional Irrigation development strategy. Country report Botswana. Harare.

Saayman, I.C., H.E. Beekman, S. Adams, R.B. Campbell, J. Conrad, M.V. Fey, N. Jovanovic, A. Thomas, and B.H. Usher. 2007. Assessment of Aquifer Vulnerability in South Africa. Water Research Commission, South Africa. Report No 1432/1/07. 92 pp.

Sandstrom, K. and M. Singh. 2004. Water Demand Management in Southern Africa. Prepared for the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Akkadia Consulting. 76 pp.

Schlüter. 2006. Geological Atlas of Africa. Springer, Berlin. 272 pp.

Scholes, R.J. and R. Biggs (Eds). 2004. Ecosystem Services in Southern Africa: A Regional Assessment. A contribution to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

Schulze, R.E. 2006. Commercial Forestry Production in South Africa: Background. In: Schulze, R.E. (Ed). 2006. South African Atlas of Climatology and Agrohydrology. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, RSA, WRC Report 1489/1/06, Section 18.1.

Shirley, B. 2009. Power stations pose risk to Waterberg water quality. Creamer Media's Engineering News Online. March 13, 2009.

Swatuk, L. and D. Rahm. 2004. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana. Harry Oppenheimer Okavango Research Centre, University of Botswana and University of Texas. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 29 (2004) pp. 1357-1364.

Tauacale, F. 2002. Water Resources of Mozambique “and the situation of the shared rivers”. River Basin Information Systems Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya from February 13-14, 2002.

Turpie, J., B. Heydenrych and R. Hassan. 2002. 'Fynbox: a preliminary assessment of its status and economic value', in R. Hassan (ed.) Accounting for Stock and Flow Values of Woody Land Resources: Methods and Results from South Africa, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA), University of Pretoria, pp. 73-116.

Turton, A.R. and N. Quinn. 2000. The Shared River Initiative on the Incomati. Paper presented to the Portfolio Committee for Environmental Affairs and Tourism in the National Assembly.

USAID (United States Agency for International Development) & RCSA (Regional Centre for Southern Africa). 2002. Limpopo River Basin Fact Sheet 1. Produced as part of the Rapid Environmental Appraisal of the Limpopo River Basin, and drawn from the technical report prepared for the SADC Water Sector by Southern African Research and Documentation Centre (SARDC) Musokotwane Environment Resource Centre for Southern Africa (IMERCSA). Strength grant no. 01-G-1022.2002.

van Koppen, B., T. Shah, R. Namara, B. Barry, P. van der Zaag, and E. Obeng Bekoe. 2008. Water rights in informal economies in the Limpopo and Volta basins. IMWI, UNESCO-IHE, CSIR. 5 pp.

UNSD (United Nations Statistics Division). 2006. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Water Resources. Draft for Discussion. May 2006. Available online.

Water Footprint Network. 2010. University of Twente. Accessed at: Accessed on: May 17, 2010.

Weather SA (Weather South Africa). 2009. Services. Climate Change, what, when and where? Available at: Accessed on: May 18, 2009.

WHO (World Health Organization). 2000. Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Assessment. Botswana.

Williams, E.D., R.U. Ayres and M. Heller. 2002. The 1.7 kilogram microchip: Energy and material use in the production of semiconductor devices, Environmental Science and Technology 36(24): 5504-5510.

World Gazetteer. 2007.Mozambique: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. Accessed at: Accessed on: April 19, 2010.

World Bank. 2010. World Development Indicators. Washington DC: World Bank.

World Bank. 2009. Technical advice for Reform of the Water and Sanitation Sector (vol 1 & 2). Government of Botswana.



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